Here is a multiple choice question from an online high school physics question. It’s bad, but it’s probably not actually the worst ever.
It goes something like this:
You have three objects that start at the same temperature. Which one cools off the fastest?
What is your answer and why is this bad?
I’ll be honest, I answered this question incorrectly — well, I should say that my answer didn’t agree with the key. Let’s go over the options.
I’m starting with water because this is the answer I chose. Why would water cool off the fastest? My assumption was that the water would evaporate and cool off the liquid more than the other two objects.
Of course the evaporative cool depends on several things:
- The water temperature
- The air temperature and humidity
- The volume of water
- The surface area of water.
If I take some water and pour it into a very shallow pan with a large surface area, this stuff is going to cool off quick. Note: here is an older post about evaporative cooling.
This answer was wrong.
This was my second answer. What is special about toast and why would they choose it? In my mind, toast is special because it has lots of holes. Lots of holes means that it has a large surface area to volume ratio.
Since things radiate thermal energy through the surface area, things with high surface area to volume ratios cool off faster. This is why small objects cool off faster than large objects. This is also why the moon’s core is cooler than the Earth’s core (the moon is smaller).
Oh, this is also how a heat sink works. Large surface area to volume ratio.
This answer was wrong.
A dry bean could cool off the fastest because it is small (high surface area to volume ratio) and it is low density. I assume if it has a low density it has a low specific heat capacity. This means that with a low specific heat capacity, the dry bean has a small amount of thermal energy even though it has the same temperature as the water and the toast.
This is essentially the same reason that you can put pizza on aluminum foil in the oven. Once it is hot, you can touch the aluminum foil, but not the pizza. Although they are at the same temperature, the aluminum foil has less thermal energy to burn you (because of the low mass).
This was the correct answer (according to the people that wrote this dumb question).
Writing questions isn’t so simple
I think what the author really wanted to ask was “which has the lowest thermal energy?” But even then, you have to take mass and specific heat capacity into consideration.
It’s really just a super bad question. Super bad. Oh, but it’s probably not the worst one. I saw some others that were just as bad if not worse, but I have blocked them from my memory.
Originally published at http://rhettallain.com on July 25, 2018.